# Strings, symbols, and text

In this module, we will look at string and characters, i.e. representations of text. These objects are really interesting in Julia because not only do they store information, they can store a little bit of computation as well. The point of this module is to go through the basics of what strings are, and we will revisit advanced operations in later sections.

A few modules into this class, it is time to write what we usually write as a first instruction:

"Hello, world"

"Hello, world"


This is a String – we can check that it is a string by asking for its type, which is

typeof("Hello, world")

String


Note that Julia is not really picky about what goes into a string. Unicode characters are perfectly valid:

"こんにちは世界!" |> typeof

String


Strings behave a little like arrays. They have a length:

length("Hello, world!")

13


This length is the number of characters, including spaces, in the string. As a rule, almost everything with a length can be indexed:

"Hello, world!"[1:5]

"Hello"


And as before, indexing from the end works as well:

"Hello, world!"[(end - 5):(end - 1)]

"world"


Strings have a number of specific methods to transform them:

titlecase("Hello, world!")

"Hello, World!"

lowercase("Hello, world!")

"hello, world!"

uppercase("Hello, world!")

"HELLO, WORLD!"


There are a few others, that are all documented. Looking at ?titlecase should set you on your way.

One of the reasons why strings are special is that we can sneak a little computation in them, using something called string interpolation:

"The answer to Life, the Universe and Everything is $(rand(1:100))"  "The answer to Life, the Universe and Everything is 58"  This is an interesting construct when we want to print out some information. Everything that is wrapper in the $() block will be executed first, and the output will be replaced within the string.

It is also possible to join strings together, in a most unintuitive way:

"Hello" * ", " * "world" * "!"

"Hello, world!"

There is, actually, a reason for which strings are concatenated using *, and it has to do with this representing the least amount of departure from what * means in a mathematical context.

String can also have multiple lines:

"""
Hello
world
!
"""

"Hello\nworld\n!\n"


Note that the line breaks have been replaced by the line break character (\n). Indeed, you can use line breaks and tabulations (\t) in your strings. They will be correctly replaced when using the print (or println; see the documentation of both to see how they differ) function:

print("This\tis\ta\ttabulation")

This	is	a	tabulation


Julia can also represent single characters. We can for example compare a and É:

'a'

'a': ASCII/Unicode U+0061 (category Ll: Letter, lowercase)

'É'

'É': Unicode U+00C9 (category Lu: Letter, uppercase)


The representation of a character is a little bit more rich than that of a string, and we can get information about its case, its unicode value, its category, and a number of other informations that can be useful when dealing with a string.

We can extract the characters of a string in the following way:

Char("Hello world!"[end])

'!': ASCII/Unicode U+0021 (category Po: Punctuation, other)


But importantly, we can also create a string out of characters:

String(['H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o'])

"Hello"


Strings are not quite a vector of characters, but we can convert a vector of characters into a string!

There is one more data structure to represent textual or categorical information: symbols. Symbols are incredibly powerful. The way to declare a symbol is to preface it with :, or to call the Symbol function on a string:

:α

:α

Symbol("α")

:α


Symbols are not mutable, and are extremely useful to represent categories. In many situations, comparing the equality of two symbols is also much faster than comparing the equality of two strings, which is important when working with increasing data volumes.

There are a number of additional operations on text-like objects we can do, including substitutions, matching, and advanced replacements. They will be covered in later modules.